Graphene Oxide

Graphene Oxide

Modified hummers method Graphene Oxide – Single & Few Layer, a variety of platelet sizes, high oxygen content, & freeze dried to preserve solubility

Reduced Graphene Oxide

Graphene Oxide Gel

Graphene Oxide Dispersions

Flexiphene Surfactant Solutions

Graphene Oxide (GO) and RGO come in powder form. Our GO is purified by washing 15 times, until he filtrate is PH neutral. It’s then freeze dried, preserving solubility and the high oxygen content of our materials.

We can also provide them as a dispersion, or  a spin coated film. Our GO products are well suited to Ink Jet, 3D, and other printing applications. Please contact us to discuss your needs.

Our US patent 12/932221 has been allowed.  We’re the only supplier of our patented Flexiphene surfactant solutions, pickering emulsions, nanoparticle dispersions, and Langmuir–Blodgett solutions that work.

For more details, to enquire about research and commercial licensing or purchase solutions, click the link above.

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Graphene Oxide Properties

GO’s synthesis methods have been known for decades. Originally called graphite oxide, it is a compound of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in variable ratios.

It’s synthesized by exfoliating graphite with strong oxidizers, rinsed repeatedly until the the rinse water is PH neutral and then freeze dried to preserve solubility.

Many companies try to reduce the rinsing or skip the freeze drying but they are critical to success in using the product.

The bulk product is a brownish/yellowish solid material that retains the layer structure of graphite but with a much larger and irregular spacing.

GO doesn’t require post production functionalization as it consists of graphene sheets with hydroxyl, carboxyl, & epoxide groups.

It’s highly soluble in Di water, NMP, DMF, THF, Ethanol, and other solvents that behave like water.

GO can be reduced using several methods such as laser, microwave, electrochemically, hydrazine vapor treatment, or by annealing at temperatures from 250-400C in a forming gas (95% argon, 5% hydrogen) environment restoring the mechanical properties as well as the intrinsically high electrical and thermal conductivity of graphene.

Molecular Structure of Graphene Oxide

Single-Layer-Graphene-Oxide-Molecular-Structure
A representation of our Single Layer Graphene Oxide’s Molecular Structure

GO’s molecular structure is shown below. The functional groups are present on the edges of the flakes and on the basal plane which imparts GO with legendary solubility compared to most nanoscale particles.

No surfactants are needed when dispersing into typical solvents such as Di Water, NMP, DMF, THF, DCB, or Ethanol.

Graphene Oxide Applications

graphene-oxide-applications-graph
graphene oxide applications graph

Graphene Oxide has numerous applications due to its high solubility and the ability to reduce it to neat graphene.  This overcomes the well known dispersion problems with other nanomaterials enabling you to get the full benefits of nanoscale additives such as improved mechanical properties as well as enhanced conductivity.

Reduced Graphene Oxide

Reduced-graphene-oxide-structure
Reduced graphene oxide structure

RGO first undergoes the typical synthesis process and then it is reduced which removes most of the surface functional groups as well as restores the molecular structure to one much closer to pristine graphene than GO.

There are a number of ways reduction can be achieved and is typically a chemical, thermal or electrochemical process. Some of these techniques are able to produce very high quality rGO, similar to pristine graphene, but can be complex or time consuming to carry out.

Common graphene reduction techniques are:

  • Treating GO with hydrazine (hydrate and monohydrate) and maintaining the solution at 100c for 24 hours
  • Exposing GO to hydrogen plasma for a few seconds
  • Exposing GO to another form of strong pulse light, such as those produced by xenon flashtubes
  • Heating GO in distilled water at varying degrees for different lengths of time
  • Directly heating GO to very high levels in a furnace
  • Directly heating GO in a microwave
  • Electrochemical
  • At 400C in a forming has atmosphere 95% argon, 5% hydrogen

Chemical reduction is a highly scalable method, unfortunately the reduced GO produced often has resulted in relatively poor yields in terms of surface area and electronic conductivity.

Thermally reducing GO at temperatures of 1000℃ or more creates rGO that has been shown to have a very high surface area but the annealing process damages the structure of the GO when pressure between builds up and carbon dioxide is released.

During reduction, there is a substantial reduction in the mass of the GO (figures around 30% have been mentioned) which creates imperfections and voids in the structure and interferes with its unique properties.

Electrochemical reduction of GO is a method that has been shown to produce very high quality RGO, almost identical in terms of structure to pristine graphene.

Graphene Oxide Paper

Graphene Oxide Paper is relatively easy to make with vacuum filtration.

GO is known to disperse very easily due to the type and amount of functional groups on its surface. To make GO paper, researchers typically disperse the GO in a solvent such as water or an organic solvent and then using a 0.2um membrane filter, they pour the GO solution through a vacuum filtration apparatus and the membrane keeps the particles on top while the solvent is collected below.

When dry, the membrane can be removed leaving a free standing GO paper product. RGO paper can be made by similar methods but will require surfactants to stabilize it so it may be desirable to make the GO paper and then reduce it instead of adding surfactants.

Graphene Oxide SDS

Please see our Graphene Oxide SDS

Graphene Oxide Disperisons

Dispersions are available from Cheap Tubes Inc. Please let us know your requirements such as solvent and loading ratio.  Our standard concentration is 2mgs/ml but we can go up to 10mgs/ml.

Our US patent 12/932221 has been allowed.  We’re the only supplier of our patented Flexiphene surfactant solutions, pickering emulsions, nanoparticle dispersions, and Langmuir–Blodgett solutions that work. For more details, to enquire about research and commercial licensing or purchase solutions, click the link above.

Publications using Graphene Oxide from CTI Materials

Below are some publications that used GO from Cheap Tubes Inc.

Graphene Oxide Membranes as ultrathin molecular sievesInkjet printed acrylic formulations using reduced graphene oxideDramatic increase in fatigue life in Graphene compositesGraphene Oxide − Polyethylenimine Nanoconstruct as a Gene Delivery Vector and Bioimaging Tool

In situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry of graphene oxide

New Reduced Graphene Oxide/Alumina (RGO/Al2O3) Nanocomposite: Innovative Method of Synthesis and Characterization

Scientists Create World’s Lightest 3D Printed Materials – Graphene Aerogel!

Scientists 3D print graphene-based inks for ultralight supercapacitors!

Elemental Analysis:

Elemental analysis typically shows a higher oxygen content than carbon content with small amounts of hydrogen.

C: 35-42%

O: 45-55%

H: 3-5%

We can provide dispersions In Di Water, NMP, THF, or DMF. Hazmat shipping fees may apply.

XPS data

GO XPS data is below

graphene-oxide-XPS-data
Our Single Layer Graphene Oxide’s XPS data

Graphene Oxide Films and Coatings

We provide Graphene Oxide films and coatings! Reduced Graphene Oxide films and coatings are also available from Cheap Tubes.

GO and RGO coatings are available with the specifications below.

  1. Single Layer Graphene film on glass/wafer  (thickness 5-30 nm, area ~ 3-5 cm2, conductivity 10(4) – 10(5) Sm-1, sheet resistance 10(1)-10(3) Ω/sq)
  1. Single Layer Flexible Graphene film on organic flexible substrate  (thickness 5-30 nm, area ~ 3-5 cm2, conductivity 10(3) – 10(4) Sm-1, sheet resistance 10(2)-10(4) Ω/sq)
Graphene-Oxide-and-Reduced-Graphene-Oxide-films
An image of our Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide films.

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